Agreement On The International Goods Transport By Rail (Smgs)

The legal provisions applicable to transport between Europe and Asia are different from those which are fully in force in Western Europe and which provide for the improvement and adaptation of traffic conditions, tariff policy, customs procedures, rules for the reciprocal use of wagons, payments made by railways, etc. Consequently, circumstances necessitated the creation of another railway cooperation organisation. It should be higher than the current AB system at the time and cover all issues relating to the rail system in an integrated manner. The most important thing was that cooperation should take place under the direct supervision of the ministers of the States concerned. Therefore, a series of regular meetings should be held each year as meetings of the Council of Ministers, the highest governing body of the Organization. Secondly, the experience of the first years of application of the UTT and PPW rules has shown increasingly important differences. The divergent interests of the States have had a direct influence on the diversity of opinions and views of a number of railways, both as regards user tariffs and the reciprocal use of wagons. It concerned economic relations between States and railways which were parties to the SMPS and SMGS agreements. Such a situation has seriously affected both economic relations and the reliability of political cooperation. Unlike the conditions of rail transport in Europe, rail communication in oszhD Member States is characterized by a considerable number of transport tracks (8 to 10K km) that cross different climatic zones, including those with a strong climate and a two-track track change on the way to one direction (1,435 mm / 1,520 mm / 1,435 mm). The total number of journeys of the railways of the OSZhD member states at the time of their creation was 227,000 km. Today, 280,000 km provide for the transport of 5.4 billion tons of freight and 4.6 billion passengers per year. At the beginning of 1995, the Railway Ministers of Belarus, Germany, Poland and Russia concluded the cooperation agreement providing for the modernisation, upgrading and development of the Berlin-Warsaw-Minsk-Moscow rail corridor and the gradual implementation of the action plan by 2010.

Thus, a new inland bridge between Europe and Asia took another direction: Lianyungang, a seaport on the east coast of China, was connected by rail to Bandar Abbas, a seaport in the Persian Gulf, and parallel to the European ports in Black and Mediterranean by Urumchi, Almaty, Tashkent and Tehran. These two events have therefore allowed the states of the hinterland of Central Asia to travel the shortest to the Pacific, the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. Finally, the Europe-Caucasus-Asia Corridor (TRACECA) has developed over the past ten years and is considered a modern modification of the Silk Road. Changes that were made to the 21st The OSZhD Council of Ministers in Warsaw in 1993 allowed it to expand the scope of the possibilities offered to each member of the organization and allowed any company or association directly related to railway services to participate in OSZhD operations as an observer or related company. It is precisely this form of cooperation that is of great interest to undertakings and undertakings in the railway sector. Subsidiary status was or has companies from Austria, the United Kingdom, Hungary, Germany, Georgia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Poland, Russia, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, France, the Czech Republic and Switzerland that carry out operations related to rail services. The OSZhD analyses the technical specificities of transport and coordinates the solutions agreed between the railways, thus facilitating the improvement of rail communications on the territory of the OSZhD Member States, subject to technical, procedural, legal and tariff compatibility with the transport system in which European countries participate. The new geopolitical environment that formed in the 90s of the twentieth century defined certain themes requiring coordinated activities of all participants in international rail transport in order to ensure regular transcontinental rail communication between Europe and Asia. . . .